Groundwater Tube Well Construction for Kampung Ketior Dalam, Kuala Kangsar, Perak
Kg Ketior Dalam is located in Mukim Senggang, Kuala Kangsar, Perak. The head of the village is Mr Omar Bin Safiee (Mobile: 019 – 5217539). There are 550 occupants from 150 houses in this village. Most of the villagers work in rubber and palm plantations with only approximately 10 people work with the government services. Lembaga Air Perak or Perak Water Board (LAP) supplies the water for this village using 4-inch asbestos cement pipes installed in 1983. The life span of these pipes is approximately between 20 to 25 years. Based on a discussion with the head of the village on Tuesday, 7th June 2016, there are frequent cases of leakages. In addition, there will be limited amount of water due to low water pressure especially during festive season or if there are weddings held in Kg Ketior Luar. After a thorough discussion between USM and the head of the village, it was decided that a groundwater tube well will be most suited to be constructed within the vicinity of the surau where the water will be assessable for all villagers. Besides, the electricity bill for pumping of water from the tube well will be shared by the villages if it is to be constructed for the surau.
On 9th of June 2016, the team leader as well the head of Water Security Cluster, Prof Ir Dr Mohd Nordin Adlan, led a team of researchers for subsurface exploration work by using resistivity method to obtain the groundwater characteristics. Measurement swere obtained as shown in Figure 1.
As shown in Figure 2, the mid position at 100 m was located near the surau. The figure illustrates the possibility of water existence at 12 m below ground surface. The soil at 12 m and deeper have the resistivity of approximately 250 ohm.m. Therefore, the research team concluded there was a reasonable potential of groundwater to be explored. This project was initially conducted as a non-research project. Consequently, it was deemed appropriate to construct a pumping well without any observation wells. The contractor was advised to carry a pumping test to determine the capacity of the tube well.
Table 1- Resistivity for rock and soil (Keller and Frischknecht 1966)
|Alluvium||10 to 800|
|Sand||60 to 100|
|Clay||1 to 100|
|Groundwater (fresh)||10 to 100|
|Granite||5,000 to 106|
On late afternoon, 9th of June 2016, the Minister of Higher Education visited the project site. During the visit, the Project Leader briefed The Honourable Dato’ Seri Idris Jusoh about the ongoing resistivity test.
Visit from the Minister of Higher Education Malaysia.
This project was estimated at RM40,000 for a construction of tube well of 6-inch diameter PVC pipes and screen for 69m depth, which includes cement grouting at the top to prevent surface water contamination. This project comes with a submersible pump equipped with electrical wiring and sensor for automatic power cut-off after water tank is filled. The water tank with cover was also provided. Due to the fact that the water quality is unknown prior to the construction, iron and manganese removal costs were not included in the original budget.
Tube well drilling works was initiated on 12th of June 2016 at 11:30 am after a small ‘majlis doa selamat’ (thanksgiving ceremony) by the villagers. On 13th of June, at approximately 1:30 pm, the groundwater was discovered at depth of 39 m.
Pumping test to determine well capacity was carried out on 17th of June 2016 for 12 hours. The test ended at 3:40 am on 18th of June 2016. During the pumping test, the well capacity was 1,400 litre/hour and the water quality obtained as indicated in the attached Appendix 1. The water from the well was found to be absent from any E.Coli and the physical-chemical characteristics of the water satisfied the Drinking Water Quality Standard by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The main characteristic of the water quality were: the turbidity was 0.9 NTU, pH 7.4, total dissolved solids (TDS) 279 mg.L, Fe 0.21 mg/L and Mn 0.03 mg/L.
With Perak State EXCO (third from left) during pumping test.